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Due to limited battery capacity of sensor nodes, minimization of energy consumption is a potential research area in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). However, energy hole and coverage hole creation leads performance degradation of UWSNs in terms of network lifetime and throughput. It address the energy hole creation issue in depth based routing techniques, and devise a technique to overcome the deficiencies in existing techniques. Besides addressing the energy hole issue, proposition of coverage hole repair technique is also part of this research work. In areas of dense deployment, sensing ranges of nodes redundantly overlap. Coverage-Aware Sensor Automation (CASA) protocol is proposed to realize an automated smart monitoring network. Two centralized algorithms are included in the CASA protocol suite: Enhanced Virtual Forces Algorithm with Boundary forces (EVFA-B) and Sensor SelfOrganizing Algorithm (SSOA). Unlike most previous works that tackle the deployment problem only partially, we intend to address the problem from both global deployment (EVFA-B) and local repairing (SSOA) perspectives.

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S.Sambasivam, & N. Karthiga. (2017). On energy hole and coverage hole avoidance in underwater wireless sensor network . International Journal of Intellectual Advancements and Research in Engineering Computations, 5(2), 1558–1564. Retrieved from